The Structure of the Ordinary: A Manifesto for Participatory Design by N. J. Habraken
Unlike a conventional building, where structural elements must be manufactured with great precision and assembled to produce a safe, inhabitable structure, a building component is as much an engineer's creation as it is a mechanical engineer's. The structural engineer imposes a set of structural criteria to determine the geometric and material properties that the component must satisfy to meet a set of performance constraints in which those properties are extended as far as necessary to satisfy the structural design goal. For example, the requirements are often specified in terms of stiffness, strength, stability, seismic response, damping, structural impact response, ductility and the like. Not included are maintenance in addition to initial cost of construction of the building component. Including the cost of material, printing, assembly, and the final build cost, an initial building component will typically add about 70% to the cost of a conventional building. The cost benefit will vary depending upon the material used and the ability to print, depending on the 3D printing technology employed. Fig. 2 illustrates initial cost of construction as a function of cost of materials for one- and two-dimensional building components. The cost of materials increases asymptotically from a low-cost material of 1 USD/kg for a one-dimensional building component to more than 30 USD/kg for a two-dimensional building component.
Habraken The Structure Of The Ordinary Pdf 59
The problem of assembling multiple building components into a structure to form a building form is simple if there is only one type of part to assemble. The many different types of building components can become a challenge if there is more than one type of the same part.