Zero Messenger Proxy
The qnx_proxy_attach() function creates a proxy processwith a canned message of length nbytes pointed to bydata. The proxy is attached to process pid.If pid is zero, it's attached to the calling process;this is the normal case. The proxy can be assigned apriority. If priority is -1, the proxy is assigned the priority of the calling process.
Zero Messenger Proxy
If anyone triggers the proxy, the proxy sends its cannedmessage to its owner. The process that triggers the proxy won'tblock, and the data sent to the proxy is discarded. The proxy actsas a messenger that's always ready to send its message. You cause itto send this message by sending anything to it.
Proxies are most often used in interrupt handlers to wake a processthat is receive-blocked, waiting for a message from a client or thehardware via an interrupt. They're also used in cases where a simplenonblocking send is required between processes. Note that proxymessages are queued. If a proxy is triggered 1000 times then theprocess it is sending to receives 1000 messages all the same. Aproxy may have at most 65535 messages pending.
A proxy can send a zero-byte message by setting nbytes to zero. In this case, the owner has to check the pid returned by Receive()against the pid of a known proxy id. A zero-byte message is slightlyfaster than one with any data.
Document Revision History This article is intended for network administrators, particularly firewall and proxy security administrators who want to use Webex messaging and meetings services within their organization. It will help you configure your network to support the Webex Services used by HTTPS based Webex app and Webex Room devices, as well as Cisco IP Phones, Cisco video devices, and third-party devices that use SIP to connect to the Webex Meetings service.Changes to IP subnets for Webex media services and URLs for Webex services are generally published 30 days in advance of being activated, but may also be updated at shorter notice if needed to address support escalations, security incidents, or other immediate operational requirements.This document primarily focuses on the network requirements of Webex cloud registered products that use HTTPS signaling to Webex cloud services, but also separately describes the network requirements of products that use SIP signaling to join Webex Meetings. These differences are summarized below:
Most customers deploy an internet firewall, or internet proxy and firewall, to restrict and control the HTTP based traffic that leaves and enters their network. Follow the firewall and proxy guidance below to enable access to Webex services from your network. If you are using a firewall only, note that filtering Webex signaling traffic using IP addresses is not supported, as the IP addresses used by Webex signaling services are dynamic and may change at any time. If your firewall supports URL filtering, configure the firewall to allow the Webex destination URLs listed in the section "Domains and URLs that need to be accessed for Webex Services".
Most organizations use proxy servers to inspect and control the HTTP traffic that leaves their network. Proxies can be used to perform several security functions such as allowing or blocking access to specific URLs, user authentication, IP address/domain/hostname/URI reputation lookup, and traffic decryption and inspection. Proxy servers are also commonly used as the only path that can forward HTTP based internet destined traffic to the enterprise firewall, allowing the firewall to limit outbound internet traffic to that originating from the Proxy server(s) only. Your Proxy server must be configured to allow Webex signaling traffic to access the domains/URLs listed in the section below:
"* Note - The Webex app does not support Proxy server decryption and inspection of TLS sessions for Webex Meetings media services. If you wish to inspect traffic sent to services in the webex.com domain, you must create a TLS inspection exemption for traffic sent to *mcs*.webex.com, *cb*.webex.com and *mcc*.webex.com.Note - The Webex app does not support SNI extension for TLS based media connections. Connection failure to the Webex audio and video services will occur if a proxy server requires the presence of SNI.
A proxy firewall is a network security system that protects network resources by filtering messages at the application layer. A proxy firewall is also be called an application firewall or gateway firewall.
A proxy firewall is also a proxy server, but not all proxy servers are proxy firewalls. A proxy server acts as an intermediary between clients and servers. It can cache webpages to reduce bandwidth demands, compress data, filter traffic and detect viruses. A proxy server can also be used to hide user information or to connect to services that would be blocked. On the other hand, a proxy firewall inspects all network traffic to detect and protect against potential threats. It can also detect network intrusion and enforce security policies.
A proxy firewall acts as a gateway between internal users and the internet. It can be installed on an organization's network or on a remote server that is accessible by the internal network. It provides security to the internal network by monitoring and blocking traffic that is transmitted to and from the internet.
Proxy firewalls filter traffic at the application layer, which is Layer 7 of the Open Systems Interconnection model. The technology is similar to traditional packet filtering firewalls, but proxy firewalls add an extra level of protection. A proxy firewall has its own Internet Protocol (IP) address, so an outside network connection will never receive packets directly from the sending network.
Proxy firewalls are also used to restrict access to sensitive sites or sites that are only relevant to specific users. For example, a proxy firewall can be used to prevent employees from accessing Facebook or Twitter during working hours, while still allowing them access to their personal accounts.
SSL/TLS inspection rules don't affect the decryption of traffic handled by the web proxy. You specify the method of web filtering (web proxy or the DPI engine) in firewall rules. By default, Sophos Firewall uses the DPI engine, applying SSL/TLS inspection rules to traffic matching the firewall rule criteria.
Sophos Firewall applies the firewall rules first and then the SSL/TLS inspection rules. It applies the inspection rules in transparent mode based on the web proxy selection you make in the firewall rule.
One example is rolling updates. When a new version of an HTTP application is developed, it needs to replace the old versions of that application. The normal way to do this is via rolling updates: for each server, the upstream proxy will stop forwarding new requests, wait until the service has no more outstanding requests, shut it down, install the update, start it up, and start forwarding new requests. Shutdowns are necessary to perform rolling updates.
This post is an update to my 2019 page on Running a man-in-the-middle proxy on a Raspberry Pi 3, now revisited and rewritten to accommodate using a Raspberry Pi 4, the current version of mitmproxy (v8.0.0), Raspberry Pi OS (bullseye) as well as changes to how some of the software is installed and configured.
An man-in-the-middle proxy is a piece of software running on a device (e.g. a Wi-Fi access point or a network router) in between a client (your phone, your laptop) and the server you intend to communicate with. The proxy is able to intercept and parse the information being sent back and forth between the client and the server. It may even manipulate the request being sent, or modify the information coming back.
What follows is a walk-through on how to set up and configure mitmproxy on a Raspberry Pi. I am using bits and pieces of various tutorials, blog posts, forum discussions and stack overflow answers. The primary source material for the DHCP and Wi-Fi setup is this Hackaday project from Grégory Paul: Raspberry Pi MITM. The major differences between that write-up and mine is that he is using a Raspberry Pi 2 Model B using 2x Wi-Fi dongles and no wired connection, running an older version of Raspbian, and using a custom script to inject pictures of unicorns in passing web traffic (haha!). My instructions below use updated hardware and OS image, as well as on-board wired and wireless network interfaces in place of his two dongles. In place of the unicorn script I have opted to automatically run the mitmproxy web interface from which I can view the intercepted traffic in a browser on another device.
I recommend that you follow these instructions with the Pi connected to your router with an Ethernet cable, and use a directly connected monitor, keyboard and mouse to enter in the commands and view the results. You can of course set up SSH access, but as you will be messing with network settings you may find yourself unable to connect to the Pi over the network and will need to run commands locally to sort yourself out. You will need internet access available on the Ethernet cable anyway for the MITM proxy operation.
The last bit of configuration for mitmproxy is to set it up such that it runs at start-up. As I will be using mitmproxy as part of a live demonstration of a man-in-the-middle proxy I will be running the bundled mitmweb application. mitmweb runs a web app which can be viewed on a browser, from which a user can then view all the intercepted HTTP requests and responses.
I hope that you found this interesting and perhaps learned something from my experience in creating a portable and demo-friendly man-in-the-middle proxy! Let me know in the comments if you have any questions.
Mumble traditionally used a versioning scheme of the form major.minor.patch where the patch version number was incremented for every bug-fix releaseof a stable release series (e.g. 1.3.0 -> 1.3.1). Most notably though, the patch version was always starting at zero for a new stable release series(e.g. 1.2.0, 1.3.0, etc.). This will no longer be the case. 041b061a72